Porcelain tiles

(including polished tiles, wear-resistant tiles, etc.)

Process flow:

Material selection, proportioning, ball milling, pulping, spraying, milling, pressing, forming, drying, printing, and chemical composition.

- - ingredients - - ball milling, firing, polishing, grinding, grading, waxing, packaging and storage.

Detailed process:


The First Link - Material Selection

The raw materials entering the warehouse should be inspected, including sampling, baking test, physical performance testing, chemical analysis and other steps. The acceptor of raw materials first sampled the raw materials newly entered the warehouse and tested the moisture content of the samples; then the inspector proceeded to make flour, make cakes and test-burn the samples according to the procedure, and tested the physical properties such as whiteness, strength and water absorption of the sample cakes after test-firing. At the same time, the inspector took part of the powder from the powder-making process for chemical analysis, and checked whether the contents of various chemical components in the raw materials were in conformity with each other. The inspection of raw materials is very strict according to the technological requirements of the joint factory. As the saying goes, "raw materials" are the most stringent.

Second link - powder preparation

The preparation of powder includes batching, ball milling, sieving and removing iron, mud homogenization, spray drying, powder storage, stale storage and so on.


Firstly, the corresponding raw materials are weighed and proportioned according to the process recipe sheet (including the amount of water added).


Then the raw materials are added to the ball mill for grinding and pulping, and the ball mill is equipped with the grinding medium, ball stone, according to the technological requirements. The purpose is to make all kinds of lumpy, coarse and fine raw materials mix evenly after grinding and crushing. On the one hand, it can promote the physical and chemical reaction of the billet in the firing process, reduce the firing temperature, on the other hand, it is also conducive to the separation of impurities in the raw materials.


After ball milling, the slurry is put into the slurry pond according to the technological quality requirements, and iron is screened during the process. Screening is to remove the coarse particles and some impurities that are not grinded when ball milling; iron removal is because iron affects the whiteness of ceramic tiles, and will form defects such as black spots, melting holes and impurities on the surface of ceramic tiles, so it must be strictly removed through multiple channels.


After iron removal through sieving, the slurry should be continuously stirred and homogenized to make the composition of the slurry more uniform, improve the fluidity performance of the slurry, increase the plasticity of the later slurry, increase the strength of the body, reduce the cracking during shaping and firing, etc.


After homogenization, the slurry is tested to meet the quality requirements. It is transported to the spray tower by high-pressure atomization, and powder particles are made by hot air drying provided by hot blast stove. In the process of spray granulation, the control of moisture content of powder is very important. The moisture content of powder and the uniformity of moisture distribution in powder will directly affect the pressing operation and the quality of brick.


The powder discharged from the spray tower, due to the difference in moisture content inside and outside the granules, and the uneven moisture content of each part of the powder, need to be conveyed to the silo to be worn out, so as to make the moisture content of the powder more uniform. Powder is obsolete in silo for 24 hours. It can be said that the preparation of ceramic tile blank has been completed. The prepared powder will be sent to the next step by conveying belt.

The Third Link-Compression Molding

The prepared powder will be fed into the press process. After the powder is distributed through the die, a certain pressure will be applied to the powder, so that the powder will be pressed into brick billets. It should be noted that in the process of pressing into bricks, the quality requirements of powder and the correct operation of press must be ensured, otherwise the quality of bricks will be directly affected.


Our company now has a large number of super-large automatic press, the largest pressure of up to 7,800 tons, and all imported from Germany and Italy. The better the automatic press, the better the density and smoothness of the product.

The fourth step - drying and printing (printing is the process of infiltrating and polishing bricks)

After pressing, the strength of the brick is very poor. Because the moisture content of the brick is very high, the free water in the brick is evaporated after drying. On the one hand, the strength of the brick body can be improved, the damage of the brick body can be reduced, and the waste products can be avoided to enter the printing and firing process, resulting in unnecessary losses; on the other hand, the water content of the brick with higher moisture content can be avoided when it is fired into kiln because of drastic steaming of water. Hair causes cracking of the green body.

Fifth link - firing

Brick billet is dried and fired in kiln. Before entering the kiln, the bottom slurry should be put on the brick billet, mainly to prevent the sticking of the brick billet to the roller when it is in the softening state in the high temperature section of the kiln calcination.


When calcined at high temperature in a kiln, the maximum calcination temperature generally does not exceed 1250 degrees. At present, the group has the longest production line of more than 300 meters kiln in the same industry, which can make the firing time of ceramic tiles more fully, the product after firing has lower water absorption rate, brighter and smooth brick surface, fine and pinhole-free, and the whiteness of green body is greatly improved. Even after grinding, the side of green body will not produce black edge phenomenon, and the product quality is fully guaranteed.

Sixth link - grinding and polishing

After firing, the semi-finished ceramic tiles have to go through the steps of grinding - scraping - polishing - grinding - air drying, so as to become a piece of bright and smooth fine ceramic tiles we can see in the exhibition hall.


In the process of edge grinding, it is strictly stipulated that the size and diagonal of ceramic tiles must meet the company's internal control standards, requiring very high precision and high technical requirements for operators.


Enter the polishing process. Polishing can be divided into three steps: rough polishing, medium polishing and fine polishing. That is to say, the polishing blocks are arranged from coarse to fine, and the polished tile surface is gradually ground into glossy and original texture.

Seventh link - classification, waxing, packaging, warehousing

Grading is a very important link.



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